Drug Glossary and Definition

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Pharmacist's Guide

Table of Contents

Drug Glossary - S

Salicylates Medicines to relieve pain and reduce fever. These include aspirin, aspirin and caffeine, balsalazide, buffered aspirin, choline salicylate, choline and magnesium salicylates, magnesium salicylate, salicylamide, salsalate, sodium salicylate.
Sedatives Drugs that reduce excitement or anxiety. They are used to produce sedation (calmness). These include alprazolam, amobarbital, aprobarbital, bromazepam, butalbital, chloral hydrate, clonazepam, clorazepate, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, estazolam, ethchlorvynol, ethinamate, eszopiclone, flurazepam, glutethimide, halazepam, hydroxyzine, ketazolam, lorazepam, methotrimeprazine, midazolam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, prazepam, promethazine, propiomazine, propofol, quazepam, secobarbital, temazepam, triazolam, trimeprazine, zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone.
Seizure A sudden attack of epilepsy or some other disease can cause changes of consciousness or convulsions.
Seizure threshold lowering drugs Seizure threshold refers to the minimal conditions required to trigger a seizure. A number of drugs can lower the seizure threshold in susceptible patients and increase the risk for a seizure. These drugs include certain antibiotics, antiasthmatics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, phenothiazines, psychostimulants, hormones, local anesthetics, immunosuppressants, narcotics and others. Herbal remedies may also lower seizure threshold. Consult your doctor about your risks.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Medications used for treatment of depression that work by increasing the serotonin levels in the brain. Serotonin is a neuro- transmitter (brain chemical) having to do with mood and behavior. These drugs include fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline. More information can be found on the individual drug chart for each drug.
Serotonergics Drugs that increase the levels of serotonin (a brain chemical). Excess serotonin can lead to serotonin syndrome (a possibly life-threatening condition). These drugs include almotriptan, amitriptyline, amphetamines, bromocriptine, buspirone, citalopram, clomipramine, desvenlafaxine, dextromethorphan, duloxetine, eletriptan, escitalopram, fenfluramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, frovatriptan, imipramine, levodopa, linezolid, lithium, meperidine, moclobemide, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, naratriptan, nefazodone, paroxetine, pentazocine, rizatriptan, sertraline, sibutramine, St. John’s Wort, sumatriptan, tapentadol, tramadol, trazodone, tricyclic antidepressants, tryptophan, valproic acid, venlafaxine, vilazodone, zolmitriptan and some drugs of abuse (e.g., cocaine, LSD, ecstasy, marijuana and others). Other drugs or herbal supplements may be risk factors also. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about the safety of any drugs you are prescribed and advised them of any herbal supplements you take.
Serotonin Syndrome A potentially very serious and life-threatening condition caused by drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain. The syndrome can be caused by an overdose, interaction with other drugs, or rarely, with doses used in treatment. It is more likely to occur when starting a drug or increasing the dosage of a drug. Symptoms often come on quickly and progress rapidly. Symptoms may include confusion, agitation, headache, diarrhea, irritability, muscle rigidity, high body temperature, fast heart beat, rapid change in blood pressure, nausea or vomiting, poor coordination, dilated pupils, restlessness, hallucinations, overactive reflexes, sweating, shivering, tremor, and muscle twitching. More severe symptoms can include seizures, delirium, shock loss of consciousness and other major medical problems.
SGOT Abbreviation for serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase. Measuring the level in the blood helps demonstrate liver disorders and diagnose recent heart damage.
SGPT Abbreviation for a laboratory study measuring the blood level of serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. Deviations from a normal level may indicate liver disease.
Sick Sinus Syndrome A complicated, serious heartbeat rhythm disturbance characterized by a slow heart rate alternating with a fast or slow heart rate with heart block.
Sinusitis Inflammation or infection of the sinus cavities in the skull.
Skeletal Muscle Relaxants (same as Skeletal Muscle Blockers) A group of drugs prescribed to treat spasms of the skeletal muscles. These drugs include carisoprodol, chlorphenesin, chlorzoxazone, cyclobenzaprine, diazepam, lorazepam, metaxalone, methocarbamol, orphenadrine, phenytoin.
Sleep Inducers Night-time sedatives to aid in falling asleep.
Sleep-Related Behaviors Certain behaviors that can occur with the use of sedative-hypnotic drugs. The behaviors include: cooking and eating, using the telephone, having sex and sleep-driving (driving while not fully awake). Typically, the person has no memory of these actions.
Statins See HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
Streptococci A bacteria that can cause infections in the throat, respiratory system and skin. Improperly treated, can lead to disease in the heart, joints and kidneys.
Stroke Sudden, severe attack, usually sudden paralysis, from injury to the brain or spinal cord caused by a blood clot or hemorrhage in the brain.
Stupor Near unconsciousness.
Sublingual Under the tongue. Some drugs are absorbed almost as quickly this way as by injection.
Sulfa Drugs Shorthand for sulfonamide drugs, which are used to treat infections.
Sulfonamides Sulfa drugs prescribed to treat infections. They include sulfacytine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, sulfasalazine, sulfisoxazole.
Sulfonylureas A family of drugs that lower blood sugar (hypoglycemic agents). Used in the treatment of some forms of diabetes.
Sympatholytics A group of drugs that block the action of the sympathetic nervous system. These drugs include beta-blockers, guanethidine, hydralazine and prazosin.
Sympathomimetics A large group of drugs that mimic the effects of stimulation of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system. These drugs include albuterol, amphetamine, benzphetamine, bitolterol, clonidine, cocaine, dextroamphetamine, diethylpropion, dipivefrin, dobutamine, dopamine, ephedrine, epinephrine, indacaterol, ipratropium, isoproterenol, isoetharine, mazindol, mephentermine, metaproterenol, metaraminol, methoxamine, midodrine, naphazoline, norepinephrine, oxymetazoline, phendimetrazine, phentermine, phenylephrine, pirbuterol, pseudoephedrine, ritodrine, salmeterol, terbutaline, tetrahydrozoline, xylometazoline.

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