Drug Glossary and Definition

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Pharmacist's Guide

Table of Contents

Drug Glossary - E

ECG (or EKG) Abbreviation for electrocardiogram or electrocardiograph. An ECG is a graphic tracing representing the electrical current produced by impulses passing through the heart muscle. This is a useful test in the diagnosis of heart disease, but used alone it usually can’t make a complete diagnosis. An ECG is most useful in two areas: (1) demonstrating heart rhythm disturbances and (2) demonstrating changes when there is a myocardial infarction (heart attack). It will detect enlargement of either heart chamber, but will not establish a diagnosis of heart failure or disease of the heart valves.
Eczema Disorder of the skin with redness, itching, blisters, weeping and abnormal pigmentation.
EEG Electroencephalogram or electro-encephalograph. An EEG is a graphic recording of electrical activity generated spontaneously from nerve cells in the brain. This test is useful in the diagnosis of brain dysfunction, particularly in studying seizure disorders.
Electrolytes Substances that can transmit electrical impulses when dissolved in body fluids. These include sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, and carbon dioxide.
Embolism Sudden blockage of an artery by a clot or foreign material in the blood.
Emphysema An irreversible disease in which the lung’s air sacs lose elasticity and air accumulates in the lungs.
Endometriosis Condition in which uterus tissue is found outside the uterus. Can cause pain, abnormal menstruation and infertility.
Enzyme Inducers Drugs that increase the metabolism of another drug in the liver, resulting in a decrease of that drug’s effect. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about this possible interaction. Listed here are the more common used drugs in this category. These drugs include: alcohol (chronic use), barbiturates (especially phenobarbital), carbamazepine, darunavir, dexamethasone, efavirenz, glucocorticoids, glutethimide, griseofulvin, insulin, isoniazid, modafinil, nafcillin, nevirapine, norethindrone, omeprazole, oxcarbazepine, phenylbutazone, phenytoin, pioglitazone, prednisone, primidone, rifabutin, rifampin, rifapentine, saquinavir, secobarbital, St. John’s wort, tipranavir, troglitazone. Also included are charbroiled meats, cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli and cabbage) and smoking. There may be other drugs in this category. Consult doctor or pharmacist.
Enzyme Inducing Antiepileptic Drugs Drugs used for seizure disorders that increase the metabolism of another drug in the liver, resulting in a decrease of that drug’s effect. These drugs include carbamazepine, phenytoin, primidone and phenobarbital.
Enzyme Inhibitors Drugs that decrease the metabolism of another drug in the liver, resulting in an increase of that drug’s effect. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about this possible interaction. Listed here are the more common used drugs in this category. These drugs include: amiodarone, antipsychotics, aprepitant, asenapine, azole antifungals, bicalutamide, bupropion, celecoxib, chloramphenicol, chlorpheniramine, chlorpromazine, cimetidine, cinacalcet, ciprofloxacin, citalopram, clarithromycin, clemastine, clomipramine, cyclosporine, darunavir, delavirdine, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, disulfiram, doxepin, doxorubicin, duloxetine, enoxacin, erythromycins, escitalopram, fenofibrate, felbamate, fluoroquinolones, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, gemfibrozil, glitazones, halofantrine, histamine H2 receptor antagonists, HIV antivirals (some), hydroxyzine, imatinib, indomethacin, isoniazid, itraconazole, ketoconazole, lansoprazole, levomepromazine, lorcaserin, lovastatin, methadone, methoxsalen, metoclopramide, metronidazole, mibefradil, midodrine, mifepristone, mirabegron, moclobemide, modafinil, montelukast, nefazodone, nelfinavir, norfloxacin, norfluoxetine, omeprazole, oxcarbazepine, pantoprazole, paroxetine, perphenazine, phenothiazines, phenylbutazone, probenecid, protease inhibitors, quercetin, quinidine, rabeprazole, ranitidine, ranolazine, ritonavir, saquinavir, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), sertraline, sulfamethoxazole, sulfaphenazole, telithromycin, teniposide, terbinafine, thiotepa, ticagrelor, ticlopidine, topiramate, trimethoprim, tripelennamine, valproic acid, venlafaxine, verapamil, voriconazole, zafirlukast; and grapefruit juice. There may be other drugs in this category. Consult doctor or pharmacist.
Enzymes Protein chemicals that can accelerate chemical reactions in the body.
Epilepsy Episodes of brain disturbance that cause convulsions and loss of consciousness.
Erectile Dysfunction Agents Medicines used to treat male impotence (the inability to develop and sustain an erection). These drugs include: Alprostadil, papaverine, sildenafil citrate, tadalafil, vardenafil, yohimbine.
Ergot Preparations (Alkaloids) Medicines used to treat migraine and other types of throbbing headaches. Also used after delivery of babies to make the uterus clamp down and reduce excessive bleeding. These drugs include dihydroergotamine, ergoloid mesylates, ergotamine.
Erythromycins A group of drugs with similar structure used to treat infections. These drugs include erythromycin, erythromycin estolate, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, erythromycin gluceptate, erythromycin lactobionate, erythromycin stearate.
Esophagitis Inflammation of the lower part of the esophagus, the tube connecting the throat and the stomach.
Estrogens Female hormones used to replenish the body’s stores after the ovaries have been removed or become nonfunctional after menopause. Also used with progesterone in some birth control pills and for other purposes. These drugs include: Systemic- chlorotrianisene, diethylstilbestrol, estradiol, estrogens (conjugated and esterified), estrone, estropipate, ethinyl estradiol, quinestrol. Vaginal-dienestrol, estradiol, estrogens (conjugated), estrone, estropipate.
Estrogen agonists/antagonists Drugs that 1) activate (agonism) estrogenic receptors in certain body tissues to produce an estrogen effect, or 2) block (antagonism) estrogenic effects in others. Drugs in this group include ospemifene, raloxifene, tamoxifen and toremifene.
Eustachian Tube Small passage from the middle ear to the sinuses and nasal passages.
Extrapyramidal Reactions Abnormal reactions in the power and coordination of posture and muscular movements. Movements are not under voluntary control. Some drugs associated with producing extrapyramidal reactions include amoxapine, antidepressants (tricyclic), droperidol, haloperidol, loxapine, metoclopramide, metyrosine, moclobemide, molindone, olanzapine, paliperidone, paroxetine, phenothiazines, pimozide, rauwolfia alkaloids, risperidone, tacrine, thioxanthenes.
Extremity Arm, leg, hand or foot.
eclamptic stage convulsive stage of toxemia
edema the abnormal retention of fluid by the body
electrolytes chemical compounds that in water break up into electrically charged atoms called ions
elemental formulas those formulas containing products of digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; also called hydrolyzed formulas
elimination evacuation of wastes
elimination diet limited diet in which only certain foods are allowed; intended to find the food allergen causing reaction
endocardium lining of the heart
endogenous insulin insulin produced within the body
endometrium mucous membrane of the uterus
endosperm the inner part of the kernel of grain; contains the carbohydrate
end-stage renal disease (ESRD) the stage at which the kidneys have lost most or all of their ability to function
energy balance occurs when the caloric value of food ingested equals the kcal expended
energy imbalance eating either too much or too little for the amount of energy expended
energy requirement number of calories required by the body each day
enriched foods foods to which nutrients, usually B vitamins and iron, have been added to improve their nutritional value
enteral nutrition feeding by tube directly into the client’s digestive tract
enterotoxins toxins affecting mucous membranes
enzymes organic substances that causes changes in other substances
esophagitis inflammation of mucosal lining of esophagus
esophagus tube leading from the mouth to the stomach; part of the gastrointestinal system
essential hypertension high blood pressure with unknown cause; also called primary hypertension
essential nutrients nutrients found only in food
estrogen hormone secreted by the ovaries
etiology cause
exchange lists lists of foods with interchangeable nutrient and kcal contents; used in specific forms of diet therapy
exogenous insulin insulin produced outside the body
extracellular outside the cell
extracellular fluid water outside the cells; approximately 35% of total body fluid

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