Drug Glossary and Definition

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Pharmacist's Guide

Table of Contents

Drug Glossary - P

Pain Relievers Non-narcotic medicines used to treat pain.
Palpitations Rapid, forceful or throbbing heartbeat noticeable to the patient.
Pancreatitis Serious inflammation or infection of the pancreas that causes upper abdominal pain.
Pancreatitis-associated Drugs Medications associated with the development of pancreatitis. These include alcohol, asparaginase, azathioprine, didanosine, estrogens, furosemide, methyldopa, nitrofurantoin, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, thiazide diuretics, valproic acid.
Parkinson’s Disease or Parkinson’s Syndrome Disease of the central nervous system. Characteristics are a fixed, emotionless expression of the face, tremor, slower muscle movements, weakness, changed gait and a peculiar posture.
Pellagra Disease caused by a deficiency of the water-soluble vitamin thiamine (vitamin B-1). Symptoms include brain disturbance, diarrhea and skin inflammation.
Penicillin Chemical substance (antibiotic) originally discovered as a product of mold, that can kill some bacterial germs.
Peripheral Neuropathy (Peripheral Neuritis) Inflammation and degeneration of the nerve endings or of the terminal nerves. It most often occurs in the nerve tissue of the muscles of the extremities (arms and legs). Symptoms include pain of varying intensity and sensations of numbness, tingling and burning in the hands and feet. It can be caused by certain medications or chemicals, infections, chronic inflammation or nutritive disease.
Peripheral-neuropathy Associated Drugs Medications that are associated with the development of peripheral neuropathy. These include chloramphenicol, cisplatin, dapsone, didanosine, ethambutol, ethionamide, fluoroquinolones, hydralazine, isoniazid, lithium, metronidazole, nitrofurantoin, nitrous oxide, phenytoin, stavudine, vincristine, zalcitabine.
P-glycoprotein Inducers Drugs or supplements that can decrease the amount of another drug in the body’s cells. These drugs and supplements include dexamethasone, morphine, phenobarbital, rifampin, St. John’s wort, trazodone and others. Consult doctor or pharmacist about interaction.
P-glycoprotein Inhibitors Drugs that can increase the amount of another drug in the body’s cells. The interaction may be helpful by increasing a drug’s effectiveness. The interaction may be harmful by increasing the risk of a drug’s side effects or toxicity. These drugs include amiodarone, amprenavir, clarithromycin, colchicine, cyclosporine A, daunorubicin, digoxin, diltiazem, dronedarone, erythromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, loperamide, nelfinavir, nicardipine, omeprazole, paroxetine, propafenone, propranolol, quinidine, saquinavir, sertraline, tacrolimus, tamoxifen, ticagrelor, valspodar, verapamil, vinblastine and others. Consult doctor or pharmacist about interaction.
Pharmacodynamics What drug does to body.
Pharmacokinetics What body does to the drug.
Pharmacotherapeutics Use of drugs in prevention & treatment of disease.
Phenothiazines Drugs used to treat mental, nervous and emotional conditions. These drugs include acetophenazine, chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, mesoridazine, methotrimeprazine, pericyazine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, promazine, thiopropazate, thioproperazine, thioridazine, trifluoperazine, triflupromazine.
Pheochromocytoma A tumor of the adrenal gland that produces chemicals that cause high blood pressure, headache, nervousness and other symptoms.
Phlegm Thick mucus secreted by glands in the respiratory tract.
Photophobia Increased sensitivity to light as perceived by the human eye. Drugs that can cause photophobia include antidiabetic drugs, atropine, belladonna, bromides, chloroquine, ciprofloxacin, chlordiazepoxide, clidinium, clomiphene, dicyclomine, digitalis drugs, doxepin, ethambutol, ethionamide, ethosuximide, etretinate, glycopyrrolate, hydroxychloroquine, hydroxyzine, hyoscyamine, isopropamide, mephenytoin, methenamine, methsuximide, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, oral contraceptives, orphenadrine, paramethadione, phenothiazines, propantheline, quinidine, quinine, scopolamine, tetracyclines, tridihexethyl, trimethadione.
Photosensitizing Medications Medicines that can cause abnormally heightened skin reactions to the effects of sunlight and ultraviolet light. These medicines include acetazolamide, acetohexamide, alprazolam, amantadine, amiloride, amiodarone, amitriptyline, amoxapine, antidiabetic agents (oral), barbiturates, bendroflumethiazide, benzocaine, benzoyl peroxide, benzthiazide, captopril, carbamazepine, chlordiazepoxide, chloroquine, chlorothiazide, chlorpromazine, chlorpropamide, chlortetracycline, chlorthalidone, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, clofazimine, clofibrate, clomipramine, coal tar, contraceptives (estrogen-containing), cyproheptadine, dacarbazine, dapsone, demeclocycline, desipramine, desoximetasone, diethylstilbestrol, diflunisal, diltiazem, diphenhydramine, disopyramide, doxepin, doxycycline, enoxacin, estrogens, etretinate, flucytosine, fluorescein, fluorouracil, fluphenazine, flutamide, furosemide, glipizide, glyburide, gold preparations, griseofulvin, haloperidol, hexachlorophene, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, ibuprofen, imipramine, indomethacin, isotretinoin, ketoprofen, lincomycin, lomefloxacin, maprotiline, mesoridazine, methacycline, methotrexate, methoxsalen, methyclothiazide, methyldopa, metolazone, minocycline, minoxidil, nabumetone, nalidixic acid, naproxen, nifedipine, norfloxacin, nortriptyline, ofloxacin, oral contraceptives, oxyphenbutazone, oxytetracycline, perphenazine, phenelzine, phenobarbital, phenylbutazone, phenytoin, piroxicam, polythiazide, prochlorperazine, promazine, promethazine, protriptyline, pyrazinamide, quinidine, quinine, sulfonamides, sulindac, tetracycline, thiabendazole, thioridazine, thiothixene, tolazamide, tolbutamide, tranylcypromine, trazodone, tretinoin, triamterene, trichlormethiazide, trifluoperazine, triflupromazine, trimeprazine, trimethoprim, trimipramine, triprolidine, vinblastine.
Pinworms Common intestinal parasites that cause rectal itching and irritation.
Pituitary Gland Gland at the base of the brain that secretes hormones to stimulate growth and other glands to produce hormones.
Platelet Disc-shaped element of the blood, smaller than a red or white blood cell, necessary for blood clotting.
Polymyxins A family of antibiotics that kill bacteria.
Polyp Growth on a mucous membrane.
Porphyria Inherited metabolic disorder characterized by changes in the nervous system and kidneys.
Post-Partum Following delivery of a baby.
Potassium Important chemical found in body cells.
Potassium Foods Foods high in potassium content, including dried apricots and peaches, lentils, raisins, citrus and whole-grain cereals.
Potassium Supplements Medicines needed by people who don’t have enough potassium in their diets or by those who develop a deficiency due to illness or taking diuretics and other medicines. These supplements include chloride; potassium acetate; potassium bicarbonate; potassium bicarbonate and potassium chloride; potassium bicarbonate and potassium citrate; potassium chloride; potassium chloride, potassium bicarbonate and potassium citrate; potassium gluconate; potassium gluconate and potassium chloride; potassium gluconate and potassium citrate; potassium gluconate, potassium citrate and ammonium; trikates.
Prescription Drug Abuse The use of a medication without a prescription; in a way other than as prescribed; or for the experience or feeling elicited. This term is used interchangeably with “nonmedical” use, a term employed by many of the national surveys. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) A severe form of premenstrual syndrome which is characterized by severe monthly mood swings as well as physical symptoms that interfere with everyday life, especially a woman’s relationships with her family and friends.
Progesterone A female steroid sex hormone that is responsible for preparing the uterus for pregnancy.
Progestin A synthetic hormone that is designed to mimic the actions of progesterone. These include etonogestrel, hydroxy-progesterone, medroxyprogesterone, megestrol, norethindrone, norgestrel and progesterone.
Prostaglandins A group of drugs used for a variety of therapeutic purposes. These drugs include alprostadil (treats newborns with congenital heart disease), carboprost and dinoprost (both used to induce labor) and dinoprostone (used to induce labor or to induce a late abortion).
Prostate Gland in the male that surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra.
Protease Inhibitors A class of anti-HIV drugs which inhibit the protease enzyme and stop virus replication. These drugs include: abacavir, atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir and ritonavir; nelfinavir, nifedipine, ritonavir, saquinavir and tipranavir.
Protein Bound Drugs This protein is not to be confused with the protein in your food. Drugs that are highly protein bound could interact and cause an increased amount of one drug in the blood. This can increase the risk of adverse effects. These drugs include clofibrate, diazepam, diazoxide, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen, nonsteroida anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), raloxifene, sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, tiagabine, valproate, vilazodone, warfarin.
Prothrombin Blood substance essential in clotting.
Prothrombin Time (Pro Time) Laboratory study used to follow prothrombin activity and keep coagulation safe.
Psoriasis Chronic inherited skin disease. Symptoms are lesions with silvery scales on the edges.
Psychosis Mental disorder characterized by deranged personality, loss of contact with reality and possible delusions, hallucinations or illusions.
Purine Foods Foods that are metabolized into uric acid. Foods high in purines include anchovies, liver, brains, sweetbreads, sardines, kidneys, oysters, gravy and meat extracts.

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