Drug Glossary and Definition
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Table of Contents
- Drug List and Classification
- Drug Prescription for Disease
- Drug Over-the-Counter (OTC)
- Drug Prescription Abbreviations and Meanings
- Drug Schedules to the Rules
- Drug Mechanism of Action (MOA)
- Drug Glossary and Definition
- Medical Abbreviations
- Pharmacist Role
- Dosage Forms
Drug Glossary - D
|Drugs used to relieve congestion by shrinking swollen membranes. These drugs include: Cough-suppressing- phenylephrine and dextromethorphan, phenylpropanolamine (phenylpropanolamine products are being discontinued) and caramiphen, phenylpropanolamine and dextromethorphan, phenylpropanolamine and hydrocodone, pseudoephedrine and codeine, pseudoephedrine and dextromethorphan, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone. Cough-suppressing and pain-relieving- phenylpropanolamine, dextromethorphan and acetaminophen. Coughsuppressing and sputum-thinning phenylephrine, dextromethorphan and guaifenesin; phenylephrine, hydrocodone and guaifenesin; phenylpropanolamine, codeine and guaifenesin; phenylpropanolamine, dextromethorphan and guaifenesin; pseudoephedrine, codeine and guaifenesin; pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan and guaifenesin; pseudoephedrine, hydrocodone and guaifenesin; phenylephrine, dextromethorphan, guaifenesin and acetaminophen; pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, guaifenesin and acetaminophen. Sputum-thinning-ephedrine and guaifenesin; ephedrine and potassium iodide; phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine and guaifenesin; phenylpropanolamine and guaifenesin; pseudoephedrine and guaifenesin. Nasal-ephedrine (oral), phenylpropanolamine, pseudoephedrine. Ophthalmic (eye)- naphazoline, oxymetazoline, phenylephrine. Topical-oxymetazoline, phenylephrine, xylometazoline.
|Temporary mental disturbance characterized by hallucinations, agitation and incoherence.
|A drug can be capable of leading to physical and/or psychological dependence. Physical dependence includes tolerance (requiring larger dosages or repeated use) and withdrawal symptoms (mental and physical) when it is stopped. Psychological dependence involves repeated use of a drug to bring about effects that are pleasurable or satisfying, or it reduces undesirable feelings.
|A process in which the body rids itself of a drug (or its metabolites). During this period, withdrawal symptoms can emerge that may require medical treatment. This is often the first step in drug abuse treatment.
|Metabolic disorder in which the body can’t use carbohydrates efficiently. This leads to a dangerously high level of glucose (a carbohydrate) in the blood.
|Procedure to filter waste products from the bloodstream of patients with kidney failure.
|Digitalis Preparations (Digitalis Glycosides)
|Important drugs to treat heart disease, such as congestive heart failure, heartbeat irregularities and cardiogenic shock. These drugs include digitoxin, digoxin.
|One of the digitalis drugs used to treat heart disease. All digitalis products were originally derived from the foxglove plant.
|Disulfiram (Antabuse) is a drug to treat alcoholism. When alcohol in the bloodstream interacts with disulfiram, it causes a flushed face, severe headache, chest pains, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, sweating and weakness. Severe reactions may cause death. A disulfiram reaction is the interaction of any drug with alcohol or another drug to produce these symptoms.
|Drugs that act on the kidneys to prevent reabsorption of electrolytes, especially chlorides. They are used to treat edema, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, kidney and liver failure and others. These drugs include amiloride, amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide, bendroflumethiazide, benzthiazide, bumetanide, chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, cyclothiazide, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, glycerin, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide, mannitol, methyclothiazide, metolazone, polythiazide, quinethazone, spironolactone, spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide, triamterene, triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide, trichlormethiazide, urea.
|Drugs that act on the kidneys to prevent reabsorption of electrolytes, especially sodium. They are used to treat edema, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, kidney and liver failure and others. These drugs include bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, furosemide.
|Drugs that act on the kidneys to prevent reabsorption of electrolytes, especially sodium. They are used to treat edema, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, kidney and liver failure and others. This particular group of diuretics does not allow the unwanted side effect of low potassium in the blood to occur. These drugs include amiloride, spironolactone, triamterene.
|Drugs that act on the kidneys to prevent reabsorption of electrolytes, especially chlorides. They are used to treat edema, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, kidney and liver failure and others. These drugs include bendroflumethiazide, benzthiazide, chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, cyclothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, methyclothiazide, metolazone, polythiazide, quinethazone, trichlormethiazide.
|Drugs that stimulate activity of dopamine (a brain chemical that helps control movement). These include apomorphine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, pramipexole, quinagolide, ropinirole, rotigotine.
|Drugs that interfere with dopamine production (brain chemical that helps control movement). These drugs include haloperidol, metoclopramide, phenothiazines, procainamide, thioxanthenes and others.
|A dosage form is the physical form in which a drug is produced and dispensed, such as a tablet, a capsule, an injectable and others.
|The first 12 inches of the small intestine.
|represent percentage per serving of each nutritional item listed on new food labels based on daily intake of 2,000 calories
|decompensated heart disease
|heart disease in which the heart cannot maintain circulation to all body parts
|disease caused by the lack of a specific nutrient
|having lost large amounts of water
|loss of water
|loss of mineral or minerals
|decayed areas on teeth; cavities
|arrangement, type, and number of teeth
|an indentation; or feelings of extreme sadness
|inflammation of the skin
|terms used to describe something
|having gradually reduced the body’s sensitivity (allergic reaction) to specific items
|chronic disease in which the body lacks the normal ability to metabolize glucose
|unconsciousness caused by a state of acidosis due to too much sugar or too little insulin
|mechanical filtration of the blood; used when the kidneys are no longer able to perform normally
|thin membrane or partition
|indigestible parts of plants; absorbs water in large intestine, helping to create soft, bulky stool; some is believed to bind cholesterol in the colon, helping to rid cholesterol from the body; some is believed to lower blood glucose levels
|Dietary Guidelines for Americans
|general goals for optimal nutrient intake
|rules to be followed in meal planning in some religions
|Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
|combines the Recommended Dietary Allowances, Adequate Intake, Estimated Average Requirements, and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for individuals into one value representative of the average daily nutrient intake of individuals over time
|evaluations of food habits, including client’s ability to buy and prepare foods
|a professional trained to assess nutrition status and recommend appropriate diet therapy
|breakdown of food in the body in preparation for absorption
|double sugars that are reduced by hydrolysis to monosaccharides; examples are sucrose, maltose, and lactose
|substances used to increase the amount of urine excreted
|inflammation of the diverticula
|intestinal disorder characterized by little pockets forming in the sides of the intestines; pockets are called diverticula
|nausea and diarrhea caused by food moving too quickly from the stomach to the small intestine
|ulcer occurring in the duodenum
|first (and smallest) section of the small intestine
|disease caused by microorganism; characterized by diarrhea
|increased lipids in the blood
|gastrointestinal discomfort of vague origin