Drug Glossary and Definition

Please leave a remark at the bottom of each page with your useful suggestion.

Pharmacist's Guide

Table of Contents

Drug Glossary - A

ACE Inhibitors See Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors.
Acne Preparations Creams, lotions and liquids applied to the skin to treat acne. These include adapalene; alcohol and acetone; alcohol and sulfur; azelaic acid; benzoyl peroxide; clindamycin; erythromycin; erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide; isotretinoin; meclocycline; resorcinol; resorcinol and sulfur; salicylic acid gel USP; salicylic acid lotion; salicylic acid ointment; salicylic acid pads; salicylic acid soap; salicylic acid and sulfur bar soap; salicylic acid and sulfur cleansing lotion; salicylic acid and sulfur cleansing suspension; salicylic acid and sulfur lotion; sulfurated lime; sulfur bar soap; sulfur cream; sulfur lotion; tetracycline, oral; tetracycline hydrochloride for topical solution; tretinoin.
Acridine Derivatives Dyes or stains (often yellow or orange) used for some medical tests and as antiseptic agents.
Active Ingredient An active ingredient is any component that provides pharmacological activity or other direct effect in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, or to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or animals.
Acute Having a short and relatively severe course.
Addiction Psychological or physiological dependence upon a drug.
Addictive Drugs Any drug that can lead to physiological dependence on the drug. These include alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, nicotine, opium, morphine, codeine, heroin (and other narcotics) and others.
Addison’s Disease Changes in the body caused by a deficiency of hormones manufactured by the adrenal gland. Usually fatal if untreated.
Adrenal Cortex Center of the adrenal gland.
Adrenal Gland Gland next to the kidney that produces cortisone and epinephrine (adrenalin).
Agonist A drug that mimics naturally occurring chemicals that stimulate action in the brain and central nervous system. Examples of agonists include opiates and nicotine.
Agranulocytosis A symptom complex characterized by (1) a sharply decreased number of granulocytes (one of the types of white blood cells), (2) lesions of the throat and other mucous membranes, (3) lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and (4) lesions of the skin. Sometimes also called granulocytopenia.
Alcoholism A clinical syndrome that involves heavy alcohol consumption and continued drinking despite severe negative social and physical consequences.
Alkalizers These drugs neutralize acidic properties of the blood and urine by making them more alkaline (or basic). Systemic alkalizers include potassium citrate and citric acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and citric acid, and tricitrates. Urinary alkalizers include potassium citrate, potassium citrate and citric acid, potassium citrate and sodium citrate, sodium citrate and citric acid.
Alkylating Agent Chemical used to treat malignant diseases.
Allergy Excessive sensitivity to a substance that is ordinarily harmless. Reactions include sneezing, stuffy nose, hives, itching.
Alpha-Adrenergic Blocking Agents A group of drugs used to treat hypertension. These drugs include alfuzosin, prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin and labetalol (an alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic combination drug). Also included are other drugs that produce an alpha-adrenergic blocking action such as haloperidol, loxapine, phenothiazines, thioxanthenes.
Amebiasis Infection with amoebas, one-celled organisms. Causes diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps.
Amenorrhea Abnormal absence of menstrual periods.
Aminoglycosides A family of antibiotics used for serious infections. Their usefulness is limited because of their relative toxicity compared to some other antibiotics. These drugs include amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin, streptomycin, tobramycin.
Amphetamines A family of drugs that stimulates the central nervous system, prescribed to treat attention-deficit disorders in children and also for narcolepsy. They are habit-forming, are controlled under U.S. law and are no longer prescribed as appetite suppressants. These drugs include amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, lisdexamfetamine, methamphetamine. They may be ingredients of several combination drugs.
ANA Titers A test to evaluate the immune system and to detect antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), substances that appear in the blood of some patients with autoimmune disease.
Analgesics Agents that reduce pain without reducing consciousness.
Anaphylaxis Severe allergic response to a substance. Symptoms are wheezing, itching, hives, nasal congestion, intense burning of hands and feet, collapse, loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest. Symptoms appear within a few seconds or minutes after exposure. Anaphylaxis is a severe medical emergency. Without appropriate treatment, it can cause death.
Androgens Male hormones, including fluoxymesterone, methyltestosterone, testosterone, DHEA.
Anemia Not enough healthy red blood cells in the bloodstream or too little hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Anemia is caused by an imbalance between blood loss and blood production.
Anemia, Aplastic A form of anemia in which the bone marrow is unable to manufacture adequate numbers of blood cells of all types red cells, white cells, and platelets.
Anemia, Hemolytic Anemia caused by a shortened lifespan of red blood cells. The body can’t manufacture new cells fast enough to replace old cells.
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency Anemia caused when iron necessary to manufacture red blood cells is not available.
Anemia, Pernicious Anemia caused by a vitamin B-12 deficiency. Symptoms include weakness, fatigue, numbness and tingling of the hands or feet and degeneration of the central nervous system.
Anemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia caused by defective hemoglobin that deprives red blood cells of oxygen, making them sickle-shaped.
Anesthesias, General Gases that are used in surgery to render patients unconscious and able to withstand the pain of surgical cutting and manipulation. They include alfentanil, amobarbital, butabarbital, butorphanol, chloral hydrate, enflurane, etomidate, fentanyl, halothane, hydroxyzine, isoflurane, ketamine, levorphanol, meperidine, methohexital, methoxyflurane, midazolam, morphine parenteral, nalbuphine, nitrous oxide, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, promethazine, propiomazine, propofol, scopolamine, secobarbital, sufentanil, thiamylal, thiopental.
Anesthetics Drugs that eliminate the sensation of pain.
Angina (Angina Pectoris) Chest pain with a sensation of suffocation and impending death. Caused by a temporary reduction in the amount of oxygen to the heart muscle through diseased coronary arteries. The pain may also occur in the left shoulder, jaw or arm.
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors A family of drugs used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. Inhibitors decrease the rate of conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II, which is the normal process for the angiotensin-converting enzyme. These drugs include benazepril, captopril, enalapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, moexipril, perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, trandolapril.
Antacids A large family of drugs prescribed to treat hyperacidity, peptic ulcer, esophageal reflux and other conditions. These drugs include alumina and magnesia; alumina, magnesia and calcium carbonate; alumina, magnesia and simethicone; alumina and magnesium carbonate; alumina and magnesium trisilicate; alumina, magnesium trisilicate and sodium bicarbonate; aluminum carbonate; aluminum hydroxide; bismuth subsalicylate; calcium carbonate; calcium carbonate and magnesia; calcium carbonate, magnesia and simethicone; calcium and magnesium carbonates; calcium and magnesium carbonates and magnesium oxide; calcium carbonate and simethicone; dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate; dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate; magaldrate; magaldrate and simethicone; magnesium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate; magnesium hydroxide; magnesium oxide; magnesium trisilicate, alumina and magnesia; simethicone, alumina, calcium carbonate and magnesia; simethicone, alumina, magnesium carbonate and magnesia; sodium bicarbonate. Antacids, Calcium Carbonate-These antacids include calcium carbonate and magnesium, calcium carbonate and simethicone, calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonates.
Antacids, Magnesium-Containing These antacids include magnesium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium oxide and magnesium trisilicate. All these medicines are designed to treat excess stomach acidity. In addition to being an effective antacid, magnesium can sometimes cause unpleasant side effects and drug interactions. Look for the presence of magnesium in nonprescription drugs.
Antagonist A substance that blocks the effects of another drug by binding with the receptor site for that drug in the brain.
Anthelmintics A family of drugs used to treat intestinal parasites. Names of these drugs include niclosamide, piperazine, pyrantel, pyrvinium, quinacrine, mebendazole, metronidazole, oxamniquine, praziquantel, thiabendazole.
Antiacne Topical Preparations See Acne Preparations.
Antiadrenals Medicines or drugs that prevent the effects of the hormones produced by the adrenal glands.
Antianginals A group of drugs used to treat angina pectoris (chest pain that comes and goes, caused by coronary artery disease). These drugs include acebutolol, amlodipine, amyl nitrite, atenolol, bepridil, carteolol, diltiazem, felodipine, isosorbide dinitrate, labetalol, metoprolol, nadolol, nicardipine, nifedipine, nitroglycerin, oxprenolol, penbutolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol, verapamil.
Antianxiety Drugs A group of drugs prescribed to treat anxiety. These drugs include alprazolam, bromazepam, buspirone, chlordiazepoxide, chlorpromazine, clomipramine, clorazepate, diazepam, halazepam, hydroxyzine, imipramine, ketazolam, lorazepam, meprobamate, oxazepam, prazepam, prochlorperazine, thioridazine, trifluoperazine, venlafaxine.
Antiarrhythmics A group of drugs used to treat heartbeat irregularities (arrhythmias). These drugs include acebutolol, adenosine, amiodarone, atenolol, atropine, bretylium, deslanoside, digitalis, digitoxin, diltiazem, disopyramide, dofetilide, edrophonium, encainide, esmolol, flecainide, glycopyrrolate, hyoscyamine, lidocaine, methoxamine, metoprolol, mexiletine, nadolol, oxprenolol, phenytoin, propafenone, propranolol, quinidine, scopolamine, sotalol, timolol, verapamil.
Antiasthmatics Medicines used to treat asthma, which may be tablets, liquids or aerosols (to be inhaled to get directly to the bronchial tubes rather than through the bloodstream). These medicines include adrenocorticoids, glucocorticoid; albuterol; aminophylline; astemizole; beclomethasone; bitolterol; budesonide; cetirizine; corticotropin; cromolyn; dexamethasone; dyphylline; ephedrine; epinephrine; ethylnorepinephrine; fenoterol; flunisolide; fluticasone; ipratropium, isoetharine; isoproterenol; isoproterenol and phenylephrine; loratadine; metaproterenol; oxtriphylline; oxtriphylline and guaifenesin; pirbuterol; racepinephrine; terbutaline; theophylline; theophylline and guaifenesin; triamcinolone.
Antibacterials (Antibiotics) A group of drugs prescribed to treat infections. These drugs include, amikacin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin and clavulanate, ampicillin, azithromycin, azlocillin, aztreonam, bacampicillin, carbenicillin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefamandole, cefazolin, cefonicid, cefoperazone, ceforanide, cefotaxime, cefotetan, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, cephalexin, cephalothin, cephapirin, cephradine, chloramphenicol, cinoxacin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, cloxacillin, cyclacillin, cycloserine, demeclocycline, dicloxacillin, dirithromycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, erythromycin and sulfisoxazole, fidaxomicin, flucloxacillin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, imipenem and cilastatin, kanamycin, lincomycin, methacycline, methenamine, methicillin, metronidazole, mezlocillin, minocycline, moxalactam, nafcillin, nalidixic acid, netilmicin, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin, oxacillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, penicillin V, piperacillin, pivampicillin, rifabutin, rifampin, rifaximin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfacytine, sulfadiazine and trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, sulfisoxazole, telithromycin, tetracycline, ticarcillin, ticarcillin and clavulanate, tinidazole, tobramycin, trimethoprim, vancomycin.
Antibiotics Chemicals that inhibit the growth of or kill germs. See Antibacterials.
Anticholinergics Drugs that work against acetylcholine, a chemical found in many locations in the body, including connections between nerve cells and connections between muscle and nerve cells. Anticholinergic drugs include aclidinium. amantadine, anisotropine, atropine, belladonna, benztropine, biperiden, clidinium, darifenacin, dicyclomine, glycopyrrolate, homatropine, hyoscyamine, ipratropium, isopropamide, mepenzolate, methantheline, methscopolamine, oxybutynin, pirenzepine, propantheline, scopolamine, solifenacin, tolterodine, trihexyphenidyl, trospium.
Anticoagulants A family of drugs prescribed to slow the rate of blood clotting. These drugs include acenocoumarol, anisindione, apixaban, dabigatran, dicumarol, dihydroergotamine and heparin, heparin, rivaroxaban, vorapaxar, warfarin.
Anticonvulsants A group of drugs prescribed to treat or prevent seizures (convulsions). These drugs include these families: barbiturates, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, diones, hydantoins and succinimides. These are the names of the generic drugs in these families: acetazolamide, amobarbital, carbamazepine, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, clobazam, clonazepam, clorazepate, diazepam, dichlorphenamide, divalproex, ethosuximide, ethotoin, felbamate, fosphenytoin, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam lorazepam, mephenytoin, mephobarbital, metharbital, methsuximide, nitrazepam, oxcarbazepine, paraldehyde, phenacemide, paramethadione, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, secobarbital, tiagabine, topiramate, trimethadione, valproic acid, zonisamide.
Antidepressants A group of medicines prescribed to treat mental depression. These drugs include amitriptyline, amoxapine, bupropion, citalopram, clomipramine, desipramine, doxepin, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, imipramine, isocarboxazid, lithium, maprotiline, mirtazapine, moclobemide, nefazodone, nortriptyline, paroxetine, phenelzine, protriptyline, sertraline, tranylcypromine, trazodone, trimipramine, venlafaxine, vortioxetine.
Antidepressants, MAO (Monoamine Oxidase) Inhibitors A special group of drugs prescribed for mental depression. These are not as popular as in years past because of a relatively high incidence of adverse effects. These drugs include isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate).
Antidepressants, Tricyclic (TCAs) A group of medicines with similar chemical structure and pharmacologic activity used to treat mental depression. These drugs include amitriptyline, amoxapine, clomipramine, desipramine, doxepin, imipramine, nortriptyline, protriptyline, trimipramine.
Antidiabetic Agents A group of drugs used in the treatment of diabetes. These medicines all reduce blood sugar. These drugs include acarbose, acetohexamide, canagliflozin, chlorpropamide, dapaglifozin, gliclazide, glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide, insulin, insulin analogs, linagliptin, metformin, nateglinide, pioglitazone, repaglinide, rosiglitazone, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, tolazamide, tolbutamide, troglitazone.
Antidiarrheal Preparations Medicines that treat diarrhea symptoms. Most do not cure the cause. Oral medicines include aluminum hydroxide; charcoal, activated; kaolin and pectin; loperamide; polycarbophil; psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid. Systemic medicines include carbohydrates; codeine; difenoxin and atropine; diphenoxylate and atropine; glucose and electrolytes; glycopyrrolate; kaolin, pectin, belladonna alkaloids and opium; kaolin, pectin and paregoric; nitazoxanide, opium tincture; paregoric, rifaximin.
Antidyskinetics A group of drugs used for treatment of Parkinsonism (paralysis agitans) and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions (see elsewhere in Glossary). These drugs include amantadine, benztropine, biperiden, bromocriptine, carbidopa and levodopa, diphenhydramine, entacapone, ethopropazine, levodopa, levodopa and benserazide, procyclidine, rasagiline, selegiline, trihexyphenidyl.
Antiemetics A group of drugs used to treat nausea and vomiting. These drugs include buclizine, cyclizine, chlorpromazine, dimenhydrinate, diphenhydramine, diphenidol, domperidone, dronabinol, haloperidol, hydroxyzine, meclizine, metoclopramide, nabilone, ondansetron, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, promethazine, scopolamine, thiethylperazine, triflupromazine, trimethobenzamide.
Antifibrinolytic Drugs Drugs that are used to treat serious bleeding. These drugs include aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid.
Antifungals A group of drugs used to treat fungus infections. Those listed as systemic are taken orally or given by injection. Those listed as topical are applied directly to the skin and include liquids, powders, creams, ointments and liniments. Those listed as vaginal are used topically inside the vagina and sometimes on the vaginal lips. These drugs include: Systemic-amphotericin B, miconazole, fluconazole, flucytosine, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, potassium iodide, posaconazole, terbinafine. Topical-amphotericin B, carbolfuchsin, ciclopirox; clioquinol, clotrimazole, econazole, haloprogin, ketoconazole, mafenide, miconazole, naftifine, nystatin, oxiconazole, salicylic acid, silver sulfadiazine, sulconazole, sulfur and coal, terbinafine, tioconazole, tolnaftate, undecylenic acid. Vaginal- butoconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, gentian violet, miconazole, nystatin, terconazole, tioconazole.
Antifungals, Azole Drugs used to treat certain types of fungal infections. These drugs include fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, sertaconazole, voriconazole.
Antiglaucoma Drugs Medicines used to treat glaucoma. Those listed as systemic are taken orally or given by injection. Those listed as ophthalmic are for external use. These drugs include: Systemic- acetazolamide, dichlorphenamide, glycerin, mannitol, methazolamide, timolol, urea. Ophthalmic-apraclonidine, betaxolol, bimatoprost, brimonidine, brinzolamide, carbachol ophthalmic solution, carteolol, demecarium, dipivefrin, dorzolamide, echothiophate, epinephrine, epinephrine bitartrate, epinephryl borate, isoflurophate, isopropyl unoprostone, latanoprost, levobetaxolol, levobunolol, metipranolol, physostigmine, pilocarpine, tafluprost, timolol, travoprost, unoprostone.
Antigout Drugs Drugs to treat the metabolic disease called gout. Gout causes recurrent attacks of joint pain caused by deposits of uric acid in the joints. Antigout drugs include allopurinol, carprofen, colchicine, febuxostat, fenoprofen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, naproxen, phenylbutazone, piroxicam, probenecid, probenecid and colchicine, sulfinpyrazone, sulindac.
Antihistamines A family of drugs used to treat allergic conditions, such as hay fever, allergic conjunctivitis, itching, sneezing, runny nose, motion sickness, dizziness, sedation, insomnia and others. These drugs include astemizole, azatadine, brompheniramine, carbinoxamine, cetirizine, chlorpheniramine, clemastine, cyproheptadine, desloratadine, dexchlorpheniramine, dimenhydrinate, diphenhydramine, diphenylpyraline, doxylamine, fexofenadine, hydroxyzine, loratadine, phenindamine, promethazine, pyrilamine, trimeprazine, tripelennamine, triprolidine.
Antihyperammonemias Medications that decrease the amount of ammonia in the blood. The ones with this pharmacological property that are available in the United States are lactulose, sodium benzoate and sodium phenylacetate.
Antihyperlipidemics A group of drugs used to treat hyperlipidemia (high levels of lipids in the blood). These include atorvastatin, cerivastatin, cholestyramine, clofibrate, colesevelam, colestipol, ezetimibe, fenofibrate, fluvastatin, gemfibrozil, lovastatin, niacin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, probucol, simvastatin, sodium dichloroacetate.
Antihypertensives Drugs used to help lower high blood pressure. These medicines can be used singly or in combination with other drugs. They work best if accompanied by a low-salt, low-fat diet plus an active exercise program. These drugs include acebutolol, amiloride, amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, atenolol, atenolol and chlorthalidone, benazepril, bendroflumethiazide, benzthiazide, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bumetanide, candesartan, captopril, captopril and hydrochlorothiazide, carteolol, carvedilol, chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, cilazapril, clonidine, clonidine and chlorthalidone, cyclothiazide, debrisoquine, deserpidine, deserpidine and hydrochlorothiazide, deserpidine and methyclothiazide, diazoxide, diltiazem, doxazosin, enalapril, enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide, eplerenone, eprosartan ethacrynic acid, felodipine, fosinopril, furosemide, guanabenz, guanadrel, guanethidine, guanethidine and hydrochlorothiazide, guanfacine, hydralazine, hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide, irbesartan isradipine, labetalol, labetalol and hydrochlorothiazide, lisinopril, lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide, losartan, losartan and hydrochlorothiazide, mecamylamine, methyclothiazide, methyldopa, methyldopa and chlorothiazide, methyldopa and hydrochlorothiazide, metolazone, metoprolol, metoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide, minoxidil, moexipril, nadolol, nadolol and bendroflumethiazide, nicardipine, nifedipine, nisoldipine, nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, olmesartan, oxprenolol, penbutolol, perindopril, pindolol, pindolol and hydrochlorothiazide, polythiazide, prazosin, prazosin and polythiazide, propranolol, propranolol and hydrochlorothiazide, quinapril, quinethazone, ramipril, rauwolfia serpentina, rauwolfia serpentina and bendroflumethiazide, reserpine, reserpine and chlorothiazide, reserpine and chlorthalidone, reserpine and hydralazine, reserpine, hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide, reserpine and hydrochlorothiazide, reserpine and hydroflumethiazide, reserpine and methyclothiazide, reserpine and polythiazide, reserpine and quinethazone, reserpine and trichlormethiazide, sotalol, spironolactone, spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide, telmisartan, terazosin, timolol, timolol and hydrochlorothiazide, torsemide, trandolapril, triamterene, triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide, trichlormethiazide, trimethaphan, valsartan, verapamil.
Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs) A family of drugs not related to cortisone or other steroids that decrease inflammation wherever it occurs in the body. Used for treatment of pain, fever, arthritis, gout, menstrual cramps and vascular headaches. These drugs include aspirin; aspirin, alumina and magnesia tablets; buffered aspirin; bufexamac; celecoxib; choline salicylate; choline and magnesium salicylates; diclofenac; diflunisal; fenoprofen; flurbiprofen; ibuprofen; indomethacin; ketoprofen; ketorolac, magnesium salicylate; meclofenamate; meloxicam; naproxen; piroxicam; rofecoxib; salsalate; sodium salicylate; sulindac; tolmetin.
Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Steroidal A family of drugs with pharmacologic characteristics similar to those of cortisone and cortisone-like drugs. They are used for many purposes to help the body deal with inflammation no matter what the cause. Steroidal drugs may be taken orally or by injection (systemic) or applied locally (topical) for the skin, eyes, ears, bronchial tubes and others. These drugs include: Nasal-beclomethasone, budesonide, dexamethasone, flunisolide, fluticasone, triamcinolone. Ophthalmic (eyes)- betamethasone, dexamethasone, fluorometholone, hydrocortisone, medrysone, prednisolone, rimexolone. Otic (ears)-betamethasone, desonide and acetic acid, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone and acetic acid, prednisolone. Systemic- betamethasone, corticotropin, cortisone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, paramethasone, prednisolone, prednisone, triamcinolone. Topical-alclometasone; amcinonide; beclomethasone; betamethasone; clobetasol; clobetasone; clocortolone; desonide; desoximetasone; dexamethasone; diflorasone; diflucortolone; flumethasone; fluocinolone; fluocinonide; fluocinonide; flurandrenolide; fluticasone; halcinonide; halobetasol; mometasone; procinonide and ciprocinonide; flurandrenolide; halcinonide; hydrocortisone; methylprednisolone; mometasone; triamcinolone.
Antimalarials (also called Antiprotozoals) A group of drugs used to treat malaria. The choice depends on the precise type of malaria organism and its developmental state. These drugs include amphotericin B, atovaquone and proguanil, clindamycin, chloroquine, dapsone, demeclocycline, doxycycline, halofantrine; hydroxychloroquine, iodoquinol, methacycline, mefloquine, metronidazole, minocycline, oxytetracycline, pentamidine, primaquine, proguanil, pyrimethamine, quinacrine, quinidine, quinine, sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline.
Antimuscarinics Drugs that relax smooth muscle such as the detrusor muscle in the bladder. They can also decrease the secretion of saliva, sweat and digestive juice. Some dilate the eyes.
Antimyasthenics Medicines to treat myasthenia gravis, a muscle disorder (especially of the face and head) with increasing fatigue and weakness as muscles tire from use. These medicines include neostigmine, pyridostigmine.
Antineoplastics Potent drugs used for malignant disease. Some of these are not described in this book, but they are listed here for completeness. These drugs include: Systemic-amifostine, altretamine, aminoglutethimide, amsacrine, anastrazole, antithyroid agents, asparaginase, azathioprine, bicalutamide, bleomycin, busulfan, capecitabine, carboplatin, carmustine, chlorambucil, chloramphenicol, chlorotrianisene, chromic phosphate, cisplatin, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, cyproterone, cytarabine, dacarbazine, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, deferoxamine, diethylstilbestrol, docetaxel, doxorubicin, dromostanolone, epirubicin, estradiol, estradiol valerate, estramustine, estrogens (conjugated and esterified), estrone, ethinyl estradiol, etoposide, exemestane, floxuridine, flucytosine, fluorouracil, flutamide, fluoxymesterone, gemcitabine, gold compounds, goserelin, hexamethylmelamine, hydroxyprogesterone, hydroxyurea, ifosfamide, interferon alfa-2a and alfa-2b (recombinant), ketoconazole, letrozole, leucovorin, leuprolide, levamisole, levothyroxine, liothyronine, liotrix, lithium, lomustine, masoprocol, mechlorethamine, medroxyprogesterone, megestrol, melphalan, methyltestosterone, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, mitomycin, mitotane, mitoxantrone, nandrolone, paclitaxel, phenpropionate, penicillamine, plicamycin, porfimer, procarbazine, raltitrexed, sodium iodide I 131, sodium phosphate P 32, streptozocin, tamoxifen, temoporfin, teniposide, testolactone, testosterone, thioguanine, thiotepa, thyroglobulin, thyroid, thyrotropin, topotecan, toremifene, trastuzumab, trimetrexate, triptorelin, uracil mustard, valrubicin, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, vinorelbine, zidovudine. Topical-fluorouracil, mechlorethamine.
Antiparkinsonism Drugs Drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease. A disease of the central nervous system in older adults, it is characterized by gradual progressive muscle rigidity, tremors and clumsiness. These drugs include amantadine, benztropine, biperiden, bromocriptine, carbidopa and levodopa, diphenhydramine, entacapone, ethopropazine, levodopa, levodopa and benserazide, orphenadrine, pramipexole, procyclidine, rasagiline, ropinirole, rotigotine, selegiline, trihexyphenidyl.
Antiplatelet Drugs Drugs used to stop the platelets in the blood from sticking to one another and forming blood clots. These drugs include aspirin, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, prasugrel, rivaroxaban, ticagrelor, ticlopidine.
Antipsychotic Drugs A group of drugs used to treat the mental disease of psychosis, including such variants as schizophrenia, manicdepressive illness, anxiety states, severe behavior problems and others. These drugs include acetophenazine, aripiprazole, asenapine, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, fluphenazine, flupenthixol, fluspirilene, haloperidol, iloperidone, loxapine, mesoridazine, methotrimeprazine, molindone, paliperidone, pericyazine, perphenazine, pimozide, pipotiazine, prochlorperazine, promazine, risperidone, thioproperazine, thioridazine, thiothixene, trifluoperazine, triflupromazine.
Antitussives A group of drugs used to suppress coughs. These drugs include benzonatate, chlophedianol, codeine (oral), dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine syrup, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine.
Antiulcer Drugs A group of medicines used to treat peptic ulcer in the stomach, duodenum or the lower end of the esophagus. These drugs include amitriptyline, antacids, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, bismuth subsalicylate, cimetidine, doxepin, famotidine, lansoprazole, misoprostol, nizatidine, omeprazole, ranitidine, sucralfate, trimipramine.
Antiurolithics Medicines that prevent the formation of kidney stones.
Antiviral Drugs A group of drugs used to treat viral infections. These drugs include: Ophthalmic (eye)-idoxuridine, trifluridine, vidarabine. Systemic-acyclovir, amantadine, didanosine, famciclovir, foscarnet, ganciclovir, oseltamivir, ribavirin, rilpivirine, rimantadine, stavudine, zalcitabine, zanamivir, zidovudine. Topical drugs-acyclovir, docosanol.
Antivirals, HIV/AIDS A group of drugs used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). They work by suppressing the replication of HIV. These drugs include abacavir, darunavir, delavirdine, didanosine, efavirenz, indinavir, lamivudine, maraviroc, nelfinavir, nevirapine, raltegravir, ritonavir, saquinavir, stavudine, tipranavir, zalcitabine, zidovudine.
Appendicitis Inflammation or infection of the appendix. Symptoms include loss of appetite, nausea, low-grade fever and tenderness in the lower right of the abdomen.
Appetite Suppressants A group of drugs used to decrease the appetite as part of an overall treatment for obesity. These drugs include amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, benzphetamine, diethylpropion, fenfluramine, mazindol, phendimetrazine, phentermine, phenylpropanolamine, sibutramine.
Artery Blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart.
Asthma Recurrent attacks of breathing difficulty due to spasms and contractions of the bronchial tubes.
Attenuated Virus Vaccines Liquid products of killed germs used for injections to prevent certain diseases.
absorption taking up of nutrients in the intestines
abstinence avoidance
acid-base balance the regulation of hydrogen ions in body fluids
acidosis condition in which excess acids accumulate or there is a loss of base in the body
acne pimples
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which weakens the body’s immune system, leaving it susceptible to fatal infections
acute renal failure (ARF) suddenly occurring failure of the kidneys
adipose tissue fatty tissue
adolescent person between the ages of 13 and 20
aerobic metabolism Combining nutrients with oxygen within the cell; also called oxidation
albumin protein that occurs in blood plasma
alcoholism chronic and excessive use of alcohol
alkaline base; capable of neutralizing acids
alkalosis condition in which excess base accumulates in, or acids are lost from, the body
allergen substance-causing an allergic reaction
allergic reactions adverse physical reactions to specific substances
allergy sensitivity to specific substance(s)
amenorrhea the stoppage of the monthly menstrual flow
amino acids nitrogen-containing chemical compounds of which protein is composed
amniocentesis a test to determine the status of the fetus in utero
amniotic fluid fluid that surrounds fetus in the uterus
amphetamines drugs intended to inhibit appetite
anabolism the creation of new compounds during metabolism
anaerobic metabolism reduces fats without the use of oxygen
anemia condition caused by insufficient number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or blood volume
anencephaly absence of the brain
angina pectoris pain in the heart muscle due to inadequate blood supply
anorexia nervosa psychologically induced lack of appetite
anthropometric measurements measurements of height, weight, head, skinfold
antibodies substances produced by the body in reaction to foreign substance; neutralize toxins from foreign bodies
antioxidant substance preventing damage from oxygen
anxiety apprehension
appetite learned psychological reaction to food caused by pleasant memories of eating
arteriosclerosis generic term for thickened arteries
arthritis chronic disease involving the joints
ascites abnormal collection of fluid in the abdomen
ascorbic acid vitamin C
aspartame artificial sweetener made from two amino acids; does not require insulin for metabolism
aspirated inhaled or suctioned
atherosclerosis a form of arteriosclerosis affecting the intima (inner lining) of the artery walls
avitaminosis without vitamins

Write Your Comments or Suggestion...